THE MARVELOUS LATE SPRING FLOWERING OF CACTUS
IN THE HIGH DESERT OF SOUTHWEST NEW MEXICO
During the Driest Months of the Year, Cactus Blooms Accent a Landscape
Parched and Waiting for the Rains
Englemann’s Prickly Pear on Turkey Creek Road, Gila National Forest
WAITING FOR THE RAINS TIME
By Mid-June, spring-fed Bear Creek below the Casitas has shrunk to a trickle due to uptake of water by the lush Cottonwood, Willow, and Sycamore riverine forest
Once again it’s Waiting for the Rains Time here at Casitas de Gila Guesthouses. Similar to the previous two years, this past Winter and Early Spring were dry here in Southwest New Mexico due to a persistent, residual La Nada (neutral) to Weak La Niña climatic situation, during which Late Winter and Early Spring precipitation was negligible. Here at the Casitas, for example, as of June 23, a total precipitation of 1.26 inches has been recorded since January 1.
It’s a Late Spring morning as one looks down from the front of the Casitas into Bear Creek Canyon where a small, spring-fed creek is observed flowing through an inviting lush, cool, green riverine forest of Cottonwood, Willow, and Sycamore. Other than the fact that the creek itself has now shrunk to a small fraction of its normal flow due to the immense daily up-take of thousands of gallons water by the dense vegetation covering the floodplain, there is little evidence of the dry times that the adjacent landscape of surrounding hills is experiencing.
In the High Chihuahuan Desert, Bear Creek is an oasis of life-giving water for all creatures large and small during the Waiting for the Rain Times.
Above the Creek, a parched brown landscape waits for the Monsoon Rains to begin
Raising ones’ binoculars from the floodplain to observe the hills bordering the creek, the stark contrast presented by the adjacent landscape is striking. For here, just a few hundred feet away from the creek, is a totally different——a parched, drab landscape of predominantly brown-to-tan grasses, weeds, and leafless shrubs left over from the previous summer’s rain, broken only by the scattering of small, dark green juniper trees and bright green mesquite bushes. Yet as one slowly glasses the hillside, one soon detects, here and there, nestled within the ubiquitous field of brown, small flashes of bright red and yellow. Yes! Oh yes! One smiles, recognizing at once the source of the color: the Cactus are blooming!
THE HIGH CHIHUAHUAN DESERT
In this photo, the High Chihuahuan Desert stretches from Turtle Rock (elev. 5,480 feet in foreground) across the Gila River Valley (elev. 4,500 feet in middle ground with white buildings) to the base of the distant Mogollon Mountains (elev. 6,000 feet) (click on picture for full and larger image)
The landscape surrounding Casitas de Gila Guesthouses is classified as High Chihuahuan Desert. Situated at elevations of 4,000 to 6,000 feet, in the form of rugged, hilly topography adjacent the soaring Mogollon and Pinos Altos mountains of the Gila Wilderness just a few miles away, the High Chihuahuan Desert is a transitional landscape where the vegetation of higher elevations can be observed intermingled with that of lower elevations. It is a landscape of extreme climatic variation, where during the course of a year temperatures commonly range in excess of 100 degrees, where daily temperature swings of 30 to 50 degrees are the norm, and annual precipitation can vary from 6 to 30 inches. As a result, the High Chihuahuan Desert is a landscape where only the strongest, the most adaptable, and the most persevering flora and fauna can survive. (And up until modern times, this was also true for both the early Native Americans cultures and the later Hispanic and Anglo pioneers and settlers who chose to live here.) Essentially, this High Desert terrain can be thought of as a landscape delicately balanced on an environmental cusp, where the effects of subtle cycles of climate change are quickly reflected, and for the serious, observant naturalist, open to discovery and understanding.
HIGH DESERT CACTUS AT CASITAS DE GILA GUESTHOUSES
A Pincushion Cactus nestles among the dry gravels on the flat behind Casitas de Gila
A Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus lights up a dry landscape at Casitas de Gila
In terms of abundance and diversity, cactus are of minor significance among the High Desert flora found on the landscape surrounding Casitas de Gila. However, in terms of ecologic significance they play an important role as a food source and shelter for mammal, reptile, amphibian, bird, insect, and in times past, human populations.
Here at Casitas de Gila there are four genera and seven species of cacti that are common. These include: four species of Opuntia or Prickly Pear Cactus: the Engelmann’s Prickly Pear (Opuntia englemannii), the Pancake Prickly Pear (Opuntia chlorotica), the Purple Prickly Pear (Opuntia macrocentra), and the Brown Spined Prickly Pear (Opuntia phaeacantha); the Cane or Walking Stick Cholla Cactus (Cylindropuntia spinosior); Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus (Echinocereus fendleri); and the Pincushion or Spinystar Cactus (Escobaria vivipara or Coryphantha vivipara).
An excellent online reference that includes detailed descriptions and photographs for each of these cactus, as well as all other vascular flora found in the Gila Wilderness region, is Vascular Plants of the Gila Wilderness by Dr. Russ Kleinman at Western New Mexico University.
Engelmann’s Prickly Pear cactus on the Casitas de Gila Self-Guided Nature Trail
Large Cane Cholla on the Casitas de Gila Self-Guided Nature Trail
OPUNTIA: THE PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS –
QUINTESSENTIAL CACTUS OF THE NEW MEXICAN HIGH DESERT
At the end of a dry winter, an armament of three-inch spines and hairlike glochids have protected this Purple Prickly Pear pad being eaten by hungry javelinas
A Purple Prickly Pear Cactus displays numerous immature fruit or tuna beneath withered flowers along the entrance road to Casitas de Gila
Prickly Pear Cactus, or Nopal as they are known in Mexico, belong to the genus Opuntia, of which there are over 200 different species distributed throughout North, Central, and South America. More than 100 species are known from Mexico alone. Prickly Pear Cactus take their name from the spine-covered fruits (known as tuna in Spanish) that develop on the pad-shaped, flattened stems of the cactus (technically termed cladodes) after flowering.
Most species have two types of needle sharp spines: large fixed spines which can be 2 or more inches long that are found on the pads, and small, short, hairlike, prickly spines called glochids, that occur on both the pads and the fruit. These hairlike spines will penetrate the skin upon the slightest touch and then detach causing significant, and unless removed, lasting discomfort. While capable of inflicting a deep wound to the unwary hiker, in ancient times the large spines found extensive use by Native Americans as needles for sewing, tattooing, piercing ears, lancing abscesses, and fishhooks.
In early June this old Pancake Prickly Pear along the Gila River puts out new pads, flowers and eventually bright red fruit having survived another dry winter’s predation despite the jaws of ravenous javelina chomping at its lower extremities
Tuna gathering time in the Gila! By Late August the fruit or tuna are ready for harvest on this Engelmann’s Prickly Pear on Turkey Creek Road in the Gila National Forest
USE AS A FOOD SOURCE
During times of drought, particularly at the end of a dry La Niña winter, Prickly Pears become an important survival and forage food for both man and beast. During these times it is common when hiking to come across a large clump of prickly pear that have been completely decimated by a herd of Javelina or Collared Peccary, who have eaten them right to the ground, spines and all, and then have dug up the roots and eaten them, too.
Both the fruits and the pads of most Prickly Pear species are edible, and have been a staple food source of numerous Native American cultures for thousands of years. Fruits were eaten raw, dried, or boiled, or used to make juices, syrup, or jellies. The pads were peeled, then roasted or boiled to be eaten as a vegetable, or the pulp could be pounded into cakes which were then dried for future use1
Today, Nopal remain a major ingredient in the traditional cuisine of Mexico, supporting a large and expanding horticultural industry.
USE FOR MEDICINAL PURPOSES
With the colonization of the New World by the Spanish in the 1500s, the Prickly Pear was brought back to Europe where it soon spread throughout the Mediterranean area. Prickly
Pears contain a high vitamin C content. When it was discovered by early expeditions to the New World that the plants were effective in preventing scurvy, the debilitating disease of extended sea voyages caused by vitamin C deficiency, sailing ships began carrying the plant, thus promoting the spread of the plant throughout the globe.
For Native Americans in the Southwest the Prickly Pear Cactus was as important as today’s corner drug store, and was collected for treating a variety of ailments including1:
Pads used as poultice for cuts, wounds, infections, boils, and as a hemostat
Pads used on rattlesnake bites
Mucilage of pads used for treating burns and analgesic for pain
Infusion of pads and pieces of raw pad ingested for stomach troubles, diarrhea, and urinary problems
Infusion of roots used as laxative and for urinary problems
Dried pads ground or burned to powder for use on cuts, wounds, sores, and earache
Today, Prickly Pear is enjoying a modern comeback, available as a pulp-rich juice and in capsule form, for treating various medical problems, some clinically proven and others yet to be tested, including: Treatment of Type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity, alcohol hangover, colitis, diarrhea, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP), viral infections, and arthritis.2
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS FOUND AT THE CASITAS
The four species of Prickly Pear Cactus at the Casitas are readily identified by a few distinguishing characteristics such as overall size, growth form, flowers, and spine distribution.
This photo, taken in 2001, is of a large, extremely healthy Engelmann’s Prickly Pear near the “Entering Stress Free Zone” sign on Casita Flats Road coming into the Casitas. A magnificent cactus that welcomed all arriving guests, modeled for an oil painting, and posed for innumerable photographs, it was eaten by the javelina during a dry winter two years ago, down to, and including the roots.
Similar to the Engelmann’s Prickly Pear in overall size, pad characteristics and flowers, the Pancake Prickly Pear is easily distinguished by the fact that it grows from a single central stem or stalk. This specimen is growing from a fracture in volcanic rhyolite welded tuff at the Gila River Gaging Station in the Gila Riparian Preserve.
The Engelmann Prickly Pear and the Pancake Prickly Pear are similar in several aspects: they grow to a large size, have large, thick, fleshy pads (although the Engelmann pads tend to be larger), have a large purple red fruit, and have pure yellow flowers. However, the Englemann Prickly Pear grows in clumps of numerous pads close to the ground, whereas the Pancake Prickly Peas grows tall, having a central trunk or stem, from which the numerous pads grow in sequential links.
This specimen of Purple Prickly Pear displays a somewhat anemic appearance along the road into Casitas de Gila following the dry La Nada winter of 2013-14.
The Purple Prickly Pear is a smaller cactus than the Engelmann or the Pancake, with smaller pads growing in clumps close to the ground. It has purple spines along the edges of the pads, and a paucity of spines in the central areas of the pads.
This Brown Spined Prickly Pear on the Casitas de Gila Self Guided Nature Trail displays its characteristic growth form of chains of pads growing close along the ground.
The Brown Spined Prickly Pear is the most common prickly pear of the Gila Wilderness region. It tends to grow in long chains of pads that sprawl along the ground. Its flowers are yellow with either a red or orange center.
CYLINDROPUNTIA SPINOSIOR: THE CANE OR WALKING STICK CHOLLA
This magnificent Cane Cholla at Casitas de Gila shows off a heavy June blossoming with numerous ripening fruit.
Close up of same specimen to Cane Cholla showing new joints, blossoms and ripening fruit on river terrace just above Bear Creek floodplain.
The Cane or Walking Stick Cholla, Cylindropuntia spiniosior (formerly classified as Opuntia spinosior), is a striking and unique cactus of the High Chihuahuan Desert. The dark green joints or cylindrical segments of the cactus do not have the long fixed spines like the Prickly Pear, but are covered with short, barbed spines that extend from spiral-shaped ridges on the joints. These fine, needle-sharp spines readily detach into the skin if bumped against, and are quite painful and difficult to get out.
The cactus takes its common name from the dried, woody skeleton of the plant which has been traditionally used for making attractive walking canes, as well as other hand-crafted, ornamental sculptures typically having a western motif. It is abundant throughout the Gila Wilderness region and is found all over the Casitas de Gila lands, where its tall, cylindrical growth forms (in maturity reaching up to six feet or more) are found interspersed among the mesquite and yucca plants on the flats, the grass and juniper covered hillsides, as well as the river terraces just above the floodplain along Bear Creek.
In Late Spring, generally May and early June, the Cane Cholla puts out an abundance of large magenta flowers that contrast beautifully against the maze of deep green cylindrical segments of the cactus. Once the flowers wither they are replaced by the growth of a bright yellow spineless fruit or tuna, containing numerous seeds in a pulpy matrix.
When Cane Cholla die, after several years the fleshy covering eventually rots away leaving a unique woody core that is often used for making canes or walking sticks.
Close-up detail of Cane Cholla with outer fleshy and spine covered layers in process of coming off woody core.
USES OF CANE CHOLLA
Close-up detail of Cane Cholla mature yellow fruit and unopened flower bud.
The Cane Cholla has been reported as a staple food source of the Tohono O’odham Native American culture (formerly known as the Papago) of the Sonoran Desert in southeastern Arizona and northwestern Mexico.1 The Tohono O’odham pit baked the buds, fruits and joints or stem segments. It is likely that the cactus was widely used by other Native American cultures in the Southwest, including those living in the Gila Wilderness region, as well.
In modern times the Cane Cholla has been used to a minor extent as a native material for making the aforementioned handicrafts, such as walking sticks, but in recent years has found great use as ornamental horticultural plant in desert landscaping projects.
FENDLER’S HEDGEHOG CACTUS
Close-up of same specimen of Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus flowers showing green stigma, surrounded by a multitude of yellow stamens with pollen on petals.
Old growth Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus coming out of hiding at base of Honey Mesquite with multiple blooms in Late April at Casitas de Gila Guesthouses.
Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus, Echinocereus fendleri, is an interesting little cactus that is found throughout the lower to middle elevations of the Gila Wilderness region. Its growth form is that of dark green, single individual to compound clumps of vertically ribbed or furrowed cylinders, two or three inches in diameter and six to nine inches tall, that are heavily armored with half-inch spines. At Casitas de Gila Guesthouses, Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus vegetates in relative obscurity, well hidden at the base of the ubiquitous Honey Mesquite bushes and One-seed Juniper trees scattered over the dry sandy flats and adjacent rocky hillsides. Because of its low profile, drab appearance, and enclosing camouflage of brownish gray spines, it is hardly ever noticed by the passing hiker for eleven months out of the year. Then, in Late April to Early May, it suddenly flaunts large, very ostentatious, magenta flowers, each set off by a complementary central green stigma surrounded by a multitude of bright yellow stamens, that virtually shout out for attention! When illuminated by the early morning sun, these flowers are iridescently brilliant and showy, a High Desert delight for both photographer and artist alike. Once the flowers have withered they are replaced by a small, juicy red fruit.
USES OF FENDLER’S HEDGEHOG CACTUS
Single Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus waving twin flowers like pom-poms, screaming “Look at Me, Look at Me” near the hot tub.
Javelina love this fleshy, little cactus and, like the Prickly Pear, during a dry La Nina winter they will gobble them up right down to the ground. Quite often, and certainly more than can be written of as just coincidence, it will happen that a dedicated Naturalist, having scouted out just the perfect specimen for that special photograph or painting and having waited patiently for just the right day when the cactus is calculated to bloom, will return only to find that perfect specimen completely missing, having been eaten by the javelina the night before!
Native American cultures used both the cactus as well as the fruit as food, the cactus body or stem being pit roasted before consumption, and the fruit eaten either raw or dried for future use as a sweetener. It is also reported that a poultice of the stem was sometimes used for arthritis.
Like many of the cactus of the Southwest, Fendler’s Hedgehog and other species and subspecies of the genus have become a highly sought after and collected ornamental, leading in some cases to their being classified as an endangered species. Because of their relatively low abundance here at Casitas de Gila Guesthouses, collecting of all cactus on the property is not allowed.
PINCUSHION OR SPINYSTAR CACTUS
The Pincushion or Spinystar Cactus, Coryphantha vivapara or Escobaria vivipara is a common cactus found in the Gila Wilderness region at both lower and middle elevations. Its growth form is typically an individual or small clump of spheres or globular shapes up to six inches high that are covered in a dense mat of star-shaped arrays of straight white spines, a quarter to one inch long. At Casitas de Gila this cactus tends to “hide out in plain sight” in the same habitats as Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus, only becoming obvious when it flowers in April or May. The one to two inch flowers are also similar to Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus, but are an even more electric and garish magenta, with numerous flowers common on a single globe-shaped cactus stem. The fruit is a small globose green berry that gradually turns purple as it matures, containing numerous small black seeds.
Beautiful Pincushion Cactus in full bloom at Casitas de Gila. Note complete armament of star-shaped spines, which thwart all predators except the starving javelina.
Honey Bees love the Pincushion Cactus at the Casitas, especially when a single cactus puts out 12 blooms!
USES OF THE PINCUSHION CACTUS
In addition to Fendler’s Hedgehog Cactus, the javelina also like to eat the Pincushion Cactus, gobbling them up whole as they travel down the Casitas de Gila Self-Guided Nature Trail. Especially tasty, it seems, are those specimens that have been designated, numbered, and described as official stops in the Trail Guide … bad javelina … bad!
In more ancient times, both the stems, flowers, and fruit of the Pincushion Cactus were eaten by Native American cultures, the fruits raw and the whole cactus being roasted to remove the spines, or boiled after they had been dried.3
Like the Hedgehog Cactus, In modern times the Pincushion Cactus has also become a favorite ornamental in horticultural landscaping applications.
Close-up of 12 blooms on Pincushion Cactus. Note two Honey Bees!
1. University of Michigan at Dearborn Ethnobotany Database
2. Prickly Pear Cactus in the RxList The Internet Drug Index – Owned and Operated by WebMD and part of the WebMD network
3. Edible Wild Plants of the Prairie – An Ethnobotanical Guide, Kindscher and Kuhn, University of Kansas Press, 1987
TWO UNIQUE GEMSTONES FOUND IN THE GILA COUNTRY
OF SOUTHWEST NEW MEXICO
Pink Chalcedony Rose
Red and Yellow Jasper
CHALCEDONY AND JASPER: QUARTZ GEMSTONES OF UNIQUE FORM AND COLOR
Chalcedony and Jasper are two distinct gemstone varieties of the diverse quartz mineral family that occur abundantly throughout the Gila Country of Southwest New Mexico. Both of these gemstones are composed of cryptocrystalline quartz, meaning that they consist of a tightly-bound aggregate of tiny crystals of quartz, SiO2, so small that it requires a polarizing or electron microscope to resolve the individual crystals. While chalcedony and jasper are commonly found together in areas where volcanic activity has been extensive, they differ markedly in appearance and their origins involve somewhat different processes.
Large Chalcedony vug filling showing botryoidal texture.
Chalcedony is best described as a dense, semitransparent or translucent variety of SiO2 consisting of a cryptocrystalline intergrowth of mostly quartz and lesser amounts of moganite, another form of SiO2 that has a different crystal form. Chalcedony breaks with a conchoidal fracture and commonly displays a waxy, vitreous, or silky luster. In terms of color it is most commonly white to gray, sometimes displaying a blue or pink tint due to mineral impurities or an optical phenomena known as Rayleigh Scattering. (Chalcedony by definition does not show distinct layers of color banding; if color banding is present then the specimen is called “agate”.) It has a hardness of 6 to 7 on the Moh’s Scale and a Specific Gravity of 2.6. In the Gila County, chalcedony can assume a wide range of unique and interesting shapes and forms, depending on how, where, and when it formed in the volcanic host rock.
In general, chalcedony forms by filling cavities in rocks. Such cavities may form as gas bubbles in a lava flow; irregular vugs or open space within a solid rock; or horizontal cavities along bedding planes, that result from solution of the preexisting rock, faulting or movement within the rock, or other geologic processes. Geodes, for example, form from the partial filling of gas bubbles in this manner, often consisting of layers of chalcedony which only partially fill the void which is then lined with macro-crystals of quartz. In other cases, the chalcedony (or if it shows banding, agate) will completely fill the cavity, resulting in what is known to rockhounds as “thunder eggs”.
White Chalcedony lens-shape deposit showing botryoidal texture on upper surface of specimen. Chalcedony was precipitated from low-temperature, silica-rich aqueous solutions circulating within a horizontal bedding plane cavity within an earlier deposit of volcanic welded ash-fall rhyolite tuff. Brown material at top of specimen is a layer of iron-stained rhyolite ash-fall welded tuff host rock that overlies the chalcedony.
Chalcedony Spheres and Ellipsoids. Gas bubbles in lava flow rock are often filled over time with Chalcedony precipitated from silica-rich aqueous solutions that penetrate the rock. The two ellipsoids on either side of the two spheroids are gas bubble fillings where the gas bubbles were stretched and elongated before the lava flow cooled and hardened. Sometimes the gas bubbles are only partially filled with Chalcedony leaving a flat spot on the up-side of the spheroid or ellipsoid, as can be seen at the bottom of the top spheroid (in the flow rock the flat surface would of course been at the top of the gas bubble).
Minute changes in amount of impurities in the silica-rich solutions can result in faint color banding or layering in the Chalcedony as in the top specimen, or as intersecting or impinging growth forms such as these two Chalcedony Roses in the bottom specimen. These represent just two of the various processes that produce the endless variety of shapes and forms of Chalcedony.
“Wormy” Chalcedony. Sometimes the injected Chalcedony takes the form of masses of undulating tubes or “worms”. In this specimen two distinct compositions of Chalcedony are present, representing a complex history of silica gel injection and slow deposition and formation.
Given an open space or cavity within a rock, chalcedony forms when subsequent silica-rich watery fluids or viscous silica gels enter or are injected into the cavity. This process occurs as a result of hydrothermal circulation at low temperatures and pressures, from which the chalcedony is either deposited in molecular thin layers that slowly over time either partially or completely fill the cavity, or all at once in the form of a viscous gel. Commonly, the surface of the chalcedony deposited within a partially-filled cavity will display a smooth, but lumpy, surface known as a botryoidal texture or habit, resembling a bunch of grapes. Another common occurrence is that of the surface of the chalcedony filling being covered with small quartz crystals, known as druzy quartz.
A half-dozen Chalcedony Roses. No two alike, these cup-shaped Chalcedony specimens “grow” when low-temperature silica-rich aqueous solutions or silica gels fill vugs and open cavities in previous volcanic rocks, either slowly depositing layer upon layer of cryptocrystalline quartz or a much more rapid injection as a viscous silica gel. Highly resistant to chemical and physical weathering the roses are released when the enclosing host rock is weathered away at the surface of the earth.
Four Chalcedony Conchos. Named after the silver button-like ornaments found on belts and other pieces of traditional clothing in the Southwest, these interesting forms are essentially smaller versions of Chalcedony roses, both in appearance and manner of formation. Like the larger roses, no two conchos are alike and often display coatings of tiny, sparkling druzy quartz crystals as displayed by the two conchos on the bottom row.
This exceptional specimen displays a snow-white Chalcedony Rose “growing” on a botryoidal surface of a layer of fire agate. Considering the fact that the Chalcedony Rose and the Fire Agate layers represent deposition from silica-rich aqueous solutions of greatly different compositions, the exact sequence and manner of formation of this specimen reflects a highly complex history.
A unique and highly sought after form of chalcedony that is commonly found within the Gila Country is a type known as “Chalcedony Roses”(see excellent photos towards the bottom of the linked page). These unusual specimens consist of flower-like growths that formed when a hot silica gel of chalcedony composition, having a viscosity perhaps similar to that of toothpaste, was injected under pressure into the open cavity. No two roses are alike in size and form, making them highly collectible.
Six specimens of Fire Agate as found in the field. Only with careful cutting and polishing can the translucent Chalcedony layers be removed to reveal the possible presence, absence or degree of fire in the stone.
Fire Agate and Chalcedony Rose Pendant. In this artistically crafted gold wire-wrapped pendant, an exquisite cabochon of Fire Agate has been set in the natural cup of a Chalcedony Rose.
However, for most discriminating and serious collectors, the most precious form of chalcedony that can be found in the Gila Country and neighboring Southeast Arizona is a form known as “Fire Agate”. Fire Agate is generally not considered a true agate as it does not display the typical color banding of agate. Rather, this interesting form of chalcedony consists of inclusions of molecular-thin layers of iron III oxide minerals Goethite FeO(OH) and Limonite (FeO(OH).nH2O. crystals which are deposited on the botryoidal surface of colorless, translucent to transparent chalcedony. The Goethite and Limonite layers are in turn then subsequently covered over by additional thin layers of colorless chalcedony. When this sequential process is repeated several times it produces a gemstone, that when properly cut and polished gives a vivid, brilliant and complex play of various colors of yellow, orange, red, brown, green, purple, and sometimes blue. The cutting and polishing of fire agate is a fine art, requiring considerable experience to preserve and display the desired play of colors and not grind and polish the thin, delicate layers of color away.
Is there Fire down below? Here a 1-3 mm layer of translucent botryoidal Chalcedony covers a 1-2 mm layer of Fire Agate (note Fire Agate layer showing on broken corner in upper right of specimen). Is the Fire there? Only hours of careful cutting and polishing will tell.
WHERE TO FIND CHALCEDONY IN THE GILA COUNTRY …
Petrified Alien Eyeball! Well, actually no. It’s simply a really bizarre Chalcedony Ellipsoid that filled a gas bubble. Specimen is exactly as found, and has not been altered in any way.
The short answer is almost everywhere. The dominant geology of the Gila Country of Grant and Catron Counties is that of volcanic rock deposited between 34 and 15 million years ago. An earlier blog on this site, the Super-Volcanoes of the Gila Wilderness, gives a brief history of the major volcanic events that occurred here. Compositionally, the volcanic rocks of the Gila range from silica-rich rhyolites to silica-deficient basalts; however, in terms of absolute volume the silica rich rhyolites are by far the dominant rock type.
Throughout Grant and Catron Counties are vast areas of uplifted mountain masses of these silica-rich volcanic rocks. The Gila National Forest alone, for example, encompasses some 3.3 million acres consisting primarily of such terrain. Surrounding these uplifted volcanic masses are adjacent, down-dropped trenches and basins that are filled with volcanic sedimentary rock debris that has been weathered, eroded, and subsequently carried by streams and rivers flowing out of the uplifted mountains. These sedimentary deposits range from older (5-10 million years), tightly-cemented sandstone conglomerates and sandstones, such as the widespread and ubiquitous Gila Conglomerate Formation, to more recent deposits, such as are currently being carried downstream in modern floodplains.
Almost all of these rocks and sediments are likely to contain collectible specimens of chalcedony. Of course, some areas are better than others … and that’s where experience and the thrill of the hunt begins! While there are areas where collectible chalcedony can be discovered and extracted (generally with great expenditure of energy) from the matrix of solid volcanic host rock, such as around the tailings dumps of old mines, most experienced collectors will instead choose to let nature do the hard work, and hunt for specimens in the shallow, unconsolidated, weathered surface deposits covering the unweathered volcanic rock bedrock. For the less-than-determined collector the best method, and quite often the method that yields the greatest return both in terms of number and quality of specimens found, involves extensive walking across the surface of the vast areas of sedimentary deposits surrounding the uplifted mountain masses. The reason for this is that chalcedony has a hardness of 6 to 7 and is highly resistant to both chemical and physical weathering, whereas the host matrix volcanic rock consists of a high percentage of minerals that are both softer and more-readily broken down through weathering and erosion. Hence, over time, the chalcedony remains unaltered, is totally freed from the matrix rock, and is concentrated in the sedimentary deposits. Collecting chalcedony in this manner is thus a walker’s or hiker’s delight, where success is proportional to the area covered.
Jasper was used extensively by stone age cultures in the making of projectile points and other tools, and has been prized as a gemstone for thousands of years. Today, it is a highly sought after gemstone material that is mined from diverse deposits worldwide, and marketed under a variety of descriptive names depending upon the color and patterns displayed by the polished stone, such as “picture jasper”, “poppy jasper”, “ocean jasper”, “bloodstone”, etc.
Vein Jasper. Originally a three to four-inch thick vein of Jasper in volcanic host rock, this specimen was subsequently eroded from the host rock and transported by stream action, surviving as an elongated boulder in sedimentary deposits.
Stream worn specimen of Vein Jasper with surfical coating of white Chalcedony.
Exceptionally pure and dense specimen of Red Vein Jasper showing conchoidal fracture.
Worn stream pebble of Yellow Jasper showing conchoidal fracture.
Worn stream pebbles of welded rhyolite ash-fall tuff displaying veinlets of Red Jasper precipitated along hairline fractures.
Thin veins of Red and Yellow jasper injected along fractures and cracks within shattered welded rhyolite ash-fall tuff. Note how iron-bearing, silica-rich aqueous solutions diffused outward from the veins into the somewhat porous and permeable welded tuff.
Red Jasper and White Chalcedony Breccia. Jasper was originally emplaced as a vein filling, but subsequently shattered through faulting which allowed later deposition of Chalcedony by silica-rich fluids circulating through the broken rock.
Jasper most commonly occurs in veins, or as fillings in cracks and fractures in volcanic rocks where it has been later injected and deposited from hot, silica-rich aqueous solutions percolating through the rock. Sometimes jasper is deposited in fault zones where there have been repeated injections and precipitation from iron-rich silica bearing solutions which have been subsequently broken up by repeated faulting and internal crushing, and then re-cemented by further jasper deposition. Such deposits are called jasper breccias. Jasper breccias can be quite distinctive and striking, displaying a complex assemblage of jasper fragments of diverse color, sometimes along with fragments of chalcedony and macro-crystalline quartz, and are thus highly sought after for use as a gemstone.
Micro-veins of Red and Yellow Jasper penetrating and diffusing along fractures through welded rhyolite ash-fall tuff.
Chalcedony with slight impurities of cryptocrystalline Jasper and Jasper veinlets grading to pure Jasper with pure Hematite on upper joint surface.
Purple Jasper and Chalcedony Breccia. This spectacular specimen shows numerous periods of Jasper and Calcedony deposition followed by subsequent crushing through faulting and subsequent cementation by more Jasper.
WHERE TO FIND JASPER IN THE GILA COUNTRY …
Jasper is often found in all of the same places where chalcedony occurs. Since it forms in veins and rock fractures, where it is discovered in solid rock outcrops it can be hand quarried with modest effort using a hammer and chisel. Such veins are not common, but can be found in areas of old mines and prospects. However, for the novice collector or person unfamiliar with the area and known localities, as was suggested for collecting chalcedony, the best (and easiest) approach is to walk the surfaces of modern sedimentary deposits which have been transported out of nearby volcanic mountains such as along river and creek floodplains, and dry washes, or to explore areas where there are exposed surfaces of weathered and eroded Gila Conglomerate.
Jasper Breccia. Untold episodes of repeated Jasper deposition, followed by crushing through faulting, and re-cementation have produced this unique specimen.
Colorful Red and Yellow Jasper Breccia showing coatings of pure Hematite (black) on fracture surfaces. Very complex history of formation.
ROCKHOUNDING AND GEM AND MINERAL COLLECTING
USING CASITAS DE GILA GUESTHOUSES AS YOUR BASE
Within day-trip driving range of the Casitas de Gila Guesthouses there are unlimited locations where chalcedony, jasper, and other semi-precious gemstones, diverse minerals, and just plain interesting rocks can be searched for on the public lands of the Gila National Forest or Bureau of Land Management. Some of these areas are officially designated tracts of public land set aside specifically for rockhounding (i.e., Rockhound State Park, Black Hills Rockhound Area, and Round Mountain Rockhound Area). Casitas de Gila Guesthouses is familiar with many of these areas and will be pleased to provide maps, directions, and local information to our guests.
Guests staying at Casitas de Gila Guesthouses are, of course, also most welcome to search for chalcedony, jasper, and other minerals and interesting rocks on the Casita lands. Except for around our home … where we place the rocks we have collected!
Multicolored Jasper at its finest!
WINTER AND SPRING BIRDS AT CASITAS DE GILA GUESTHOUSES
Along Bear Creek, at the Edge of the Gila Wilderness
in Southwest New Mexico
Sandhill Cranes and Red-Wing Blackbirds in fields along NM211 bordering the Gila River in Gila, New Mexico, February 18, 2014. These Sandhill Cranes winter along the River annually from October thru February.
THE GILA NATIONAL FOREST – EXTREME DIVERSITY IN BIRD HABITAT
Map of Gila National Forest and Wilderness, New Mexico
The Gila National Forest is vast — comprising some 3.3 million acres — and pristine, with roughly one-quarter of its acreage officially classified as Wilderness, including the Gila, the Aldo Leopold, and the Blue Range Wildernesses. Within this area elevations range from 4,200 feet along the Gila River to 10,895 feet on Whitewater Baldy in the Mogollon Mountains. Within this 6,700 topographical range, the U.S. Forest Service in its excellent publication Birds of the Gila National Forest: A Checklist, recognizes 10 different major bird habitat zones, including Desert, Oak Woodland, Oak-Juniper, Pinyon-Juniper, Ponderosa Pine, Spruce Fir, Mountain Grassland, Open Marsh, Deciduous Riparian, and Coniferous Riparian. Because of this great diversity in habitat, the Gila National Forest is home to or visited by some 377 different species of birds.
Observable species of birds in the Gila National Forest varies dramatically with the seasons due to the fact that it is located on the Rocky Mountain leg of the Central North American Migration Flyway, one of the four Flyway Bird Migratory Systems that cross the United States and Canada in a north-south pattern.
Waterfowl Flyways Map
BIRD HABITATS IN THE GILA NATIONAL FOREST ACCESSIBLE FROM CASITAS DE GILA GUESTHOUSES
All 10 of the different major bird habitat zones of the Gila National Forest listed above occur within a 25-mile radius of Casitas de Gila, and are easily accessed by day-trip excursions from the Casitas. Recently, a joint project of several State and Federal agencies, plus non-profit conservation groups, has resulted in the creation of the New Mexico Birding Trail, which identifies some 40 of the most attractive birding locations in Southwest New Mexico. Eighteen of these sites, Sites 14–31, are excellent day-trip destinations from the Casitas. Several of the best sites are found along the Gila River, just 5 to 10 miles from the Casitas, including Site 21, The Nature Conservancy’s Gila Riparian Preserve at the junction of Mogollon Creek and the Gila River; Site 20, the Billings Vista Birding Area; and Bill Evans Lake. An interesting article describing a few more of these birding sites within the Gila National Forest can be found in the June 2003 issue of Winging It, the Newsletter of the American Birding Association.
BIRD HABITAT AND DIVERSITY AT CASITAS DE GILA
The landscape comprising the 265 acres on which guesthouses of Casitas de Gila are situated offers a unique combination of bird habitat and species diversity for the birding enthusiast. Three of the 10 bird habitat zones are represented here, including the Deciduous Riparian along the bottom of Bear Creek Canyon, a narrow zone of Oak-Juniper bordering the Riparian zone, and an expansive zone of Pinyon-Juniper that extends away from the Canyon into the adjacent surrounding hills and low mountains. As the guesthouses are situated on cliffs at the very edge of Bear Creek Canyon overlooking Bear Creek a hundred feet below and the slopes of the mountainous terrain rising from the creek on the opposite side, all three habitats and accompanying species diversity can be observed right from the front porch of each Casita! For 15 years the Casitas have maintained a year-round feeding program that keeps the resident species close at hand and brings the migratory species back year after year. From April through September hummingbird feeders are hung on the porch of each Casita, and a supply of necter is available to keep them refilled.
SOME TYPICAL WINTER BIRDS AND HABITAT AT CASITAS DE GILA
Winter along Bear Creek at Casitas de Gila is generally mild with overnight lows in the high teens to 20s F, and daytime highs in the 40s to 50s F. Precipitation from the occasional low pressure fronts moving through generally starts out as rain and then turns to light snow as the system passes by. Typically, at 4,800 feet, the Casitas will only receive 2 to 4 light snowfalls during the Winter, with accumulations of 2 to 3 inches, which generally melt away within 24 hours. To the north in the higher elevations of the Gila Wilderness, snow accumulations are heavier and will last for weeks, particularly on north-facing slopes. Consequently, the landscape around the Casitas and the adjacent Gila River Valley is bare 95% of the Winter, providing the birding enthusiast with excellent opportunities for hiking and observing the numerous species of birds that make this area their home during the Winter months.
Winter morning on Bear Creek Canyon at Casitas de Gila after a rare overnight snow.
Typical Winter morning on Bear Creek Canyon at Casita de Gila, showing diverse bird habitat.
These photos of Winter Birds were all taken at Casitas de Gila Guesthouses (click on photo for full-size image):
SOME TYPICAL EARLY SPRING BIRDS AND HABITAT AT CASITAS DE GILA
By the third week in March, Spring is very much in the air at Casitas de Gila. The Cottonwoods and Willows are showing green buds and various grasses and plants along the Creek are beginning to put out green shoots. Daytime temperatures are in the low 60s and the nights are in the low 30s to 40s. By the last week of April, it has warmed up with daytime temperatures in the high 60s and into the 70s. By this time, Bear Creek Canyon below the Casitas is once more a ribbon of green, with the Cottonwoods and Willows well leafed out, and the Mesquite on the hillsides are putting out leaves as well. While it is still possible for a late frost, this year it doesn’t happen, once more confirming the local conventional wisdom that the Mesquite always waits until the frosts are over before leafing out.
Typical first-week-in-April Spring morning on Bear Creek Canyon at the Casitas
Typical last-week-in-April Spring morning on Bear Creek Canyon at the Casitas
By the last week in March, the annual Spring Migration is starting. While most of the birds of Winter are still dominant in numbers, new faces appear daily at the Casita bird feeders. And most colorful and varied these newcomers are! Depending on the year, within a few days either side of April 1, the first telltale zoom-zoom of the hummingbird, generally the Black-chinned, is heard announcing their arrival. And embedded in the the zoom-zoom is the not-so-subtle demand “Where are the feeders, where are feeders! We’re starved!” And so, up go the feeders at each Casita, which will consume untold gallons of sugar water on a daily basis between April and October when they are purposely taken down, sending a message to those ravenous little travelers that it’s high time to head South!
The Gila National Forest Bird Checklist lists seven species of hummingbirds that can be found in the forest: Blue-throated, Magnificent, Black-chinned, Anna’s, Calliope, Broad-tailed, and Rufous. Here at Casitas de Gila Guesthouses we will generally see five of the seven over the course of the Spring and Summer months. In order of abundance they would be: the Black-chinned and the Broad-tailed which are here all season, the Rufous which arrives in late July, with occasional visits by the Calliope and the Magnificent. By July and August the hummers are at their peak here, when literally swarms of them will be at the feeders from the first light of day until dusk. Since the feeders at each of the Casitas are under the porch just outside the bedroom window, most guests find it quite a unique experience to be awakened by the whirring drone of numerous little wings beating at 50 to 100 times per second as the hummers begin their day-long siege on the feeders.
These photos of Early Spring Birds were all taken at Casitas de Gila Guesthouses (click on photo for full-size image):
EXPLORING HISTORY AND WILDERNESS IN THE SAN FRANCISCO RIVER BACKCOUNTRY
A Fascinating Landscape of Natural and Cultural History
IN SOUTHWEST NEW MEXICO
in the Old Southwest
In the heart of the San Francisco River Backcountry
THE SAN FRANCISCO RIVER BACKCOUNTRY – A PLACE WHERE THE MAGNIFICENCE OF NATURE AND THE LEGENDS OF THE OLD SOUTHWEST ABOUND
About 40 minutes north of Casitas de Gila Guesthouses there is a pristine, rarely-visited landscape hidden within the Gila National Forest of Southwest Catron County, where the essence of the Old Southwest awaits discovery for those intrepid seekers of roads and trails less travelled. This area, known as the San Francisco or Frisco River Backcountry, comprises roughly 200 square miles of rugged, highly-dissected mountains and mesas, bounded by US Highway 180 on the east and the New Mexico-Arizona state line on the west; situated between the San Francisco River and Little Dry Creek on the south; and the Blue Range Wilderness on the north. It is a timeless landscape, little changed from the times of the ancient Native American Mogollon Culture, who thrived here from early in the first millennium until around 1350, the subsequent replacement by the Apache Culture in the early 1600s, and the eventual arrival of Anglo pioneer farmers and ranchers in the late 1800s.
Looking south at cottonwoods lining the San Francisco River near Alma
Throughout most of this area, the San Francisco River flows parallel to and within one or two miles to the west of US 180, bordered by broad river terraces suitable for farming, between the communities of Pleasanton and Glenwood and a few miles further north in the vicinity of the community of Alma. During the times of the Mogollon Culture, the San Francisco River served as a major north-south trade and travel route. Along those sections where the canyon widened, the trail linked numerous small villages that dotted the adjacent river terraces, which were extensively farmed for maize, beans, and squash. Convincing evidence from recent research suggests that the Spanish explorer Coronado led his expedition along this very same route in 1540, on his way north to search for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold or Cibola.
By the early 1600s, the nomadic Apaches, who had come down into New Mexico from the north, likewise travelled this same San Francisco River trail system extensively for over 200 years as it ran through the very heart of their vast new homeland of Apacheria. Then in the early 1870s, and much to the consternation of the Apache, the first wave of Anglo settlers began moving into the area to take up farming, ranching, and eventually mining.
An old steam boiler at the Cooney Mine on Mineral Creek
In 1876, Sergeant James Cooney mustered out of the Union Army and returned to the San Francisco River Backcountry to prospect a mineralized vein of silver, gold, and copper that he had discovered a few years earlier while on patrol chasing Apaches. The vein was located in a canyon in the Mogollon Mountains about eight miles east of the community of Alma. The vein proved to be of excellent value and by 1880 the thriving mining camp of Cooney on Mineral Creek was home to some 300 to 400 souls seeking their fortunes in the numerous mines and prospects or in three ore processing mills that now lined the narrow Mineral Creek Canyon. In time, the rich veins of ore in Mineral Creek were traced south into the adjacent drainage of Silver Creek. Here, the veins were found to be larger and richer, and by the late 1880s the mining town of Mogollon was founded, eventually boasting a population of 6,000.
Cinco de Mayo Celebration in Mogollon, 1914
At the same time Cooney Camp was booming, farming and ranching were coming on strong along the San Francisco River. Needless to say, the Apaches were not happy with this expanding intrusion into their homeland, and conflict soon erupted, most notably Chief Victorio’s attack on the Cooney Mine and Alma on April 28, 1880, and Chief Ulzana’s ambush of Federal troops at Soldier Hill on December 19, 1885, near the present day Aldo Leopold Overlook rest stop on US 180, about seven miles south of Pleasanton. Conflict with the Apache remained an ever-present danger throughout the 1880s until Geronimo’s surrender on September 4, 1886.
Solder Hill looking east to Mogollon Mountains. Site of Chief Ulzana’s ambush.
EARLY RANCHING IN THE SAN FRANCISCO RIVER BACKCOUNTRY
During the early 1880s, at the same time that the frenzy of prospecting and mining was intensifying in the Cooney and Mogollon District in the rugged mountains east of the San Francisco River, small farming homesteads and larger ranching operations were starting up throughout the San Francisco River valley. While there was grazing land east of the San Francisco River up to the front of the Mogoollon mountains, it was the land on the west of the river that caught the eye and imagination of these early ranchers. For here, they soon discovered, in the vast rugged mountains and mesa country west of the San Francisco River, were hundreds of thousands of acres of Open Range that were covered with rich virgin grasslands and in the Public Domain, just waiting for their long-horned herds. And, thus, during the 1870s, ’80s and ’90s large-scale cattle ranching came to the San Francisco River Country with the establishment of such historical operations as the SU Ranch, the Siggens Ranch, and the WS Ranch.
On the Open Range of the San Francisco River Backcountry, looking east to the Mogollon Montains.
Much less is known about these early large-scale ranching operations than is known about what went on in the mining districts (Cooney Camp and Mogollon). Unlike the numerous local newspapers, mining reports, and various government documents that traditionally chronicled the development of these early mining towns and districts, the more isolated and solitary lifestyle of the ranchers and the wranglers that worked for them tended to leave a very short paper trail. And such is the case for most of the early ranching that took place within the San Francisco River Country, with one very important exception: the fascinating book: Captain William French’s book Some Recollections of a Western Ranchman, 1883-1899, New Mexico1.
The Wild Bunch Gang: left to right, seated: Harry A. Longabaugh (alias the Sundance Kid), Ben Kilpatrick (alias the Tall Texan), Robert Leroy Parker (alias Butch Cassidy). Standing: Will Carver and Harvey Logan (alias Kid Curry). Fort Worth, Texas, 1900.
Captain William French was born in 1854 in Dublin, Ireland. He was an officer in the British Army from 1876 to 1882, attaining the rank of Captain before emigrating from County Roscommon, Ireland, on November 4, 1883 to the United States, where he soon became a partner in the expansive WS Ranch operation at Alma, New Mexico Territory. At that time the WS Ranch was owned by English interests and was grazing a vast area of Public Domain land that stretched from the San Francisco Hot Springs near Pleasanton, NM on the south, to Saliz Pass on US 180 on the north, and from the headwaters of Mineral Creek and Whitewater Creek in the Mogollon Mountains west to the Blue River in Arizona. Through French’s eyes and writing the early history of the San Francisco River Country comes alive in fascinating first-person detail. He tells it as he lived it, and he witnessed it all, from saloon shootings up at the mining camps at Cooney and Mogollon, to his transportation of the fallen soldiers from Ulzana’s Ambush at Soldier Hill back to the WS Ranch cemetery, to his professed eventual realization that some of the former wranglers that worked for a time at the WS Ranch included none other than the outlaw train robber Robert Leroy Oarker, alias Butch Cassidy, and possiby Harry Alonzo Longabaugh, alias The Sundance Kid, and probably several other members of the famous Wild Bunch gang.
THE SAN FRANCISCO RIVER BACKCOUNTRY’S BOOT HILL CEMETERY
The last three decades of the 1800s saw tumultuous times in the San Francisco River Backcountry as increasing numbers of homesteading farmers, miners, and ranchers moved into the area drawn by the diverse natural resources of this wild and rugged landscape. In many ways the area in those days was a microcosm of what was taking place throughout the American West. Clash of values, individual and group self-interest, and major cultural differences were inevitable, ubiquitous and unending. Homesteaders built fences, closing off water and good pasture, whereas ranchers demanded unlimited access to open public range. Miners demanded both the right to prospect and then develop mineral properties wherever they were found, unfettered by government regulation or interference. And then, of course, were the indigenous Apaches who considered this country their sacred homeland, and were simply defending it from the defiling invaders. Finally, add to this mix the individual lawless opportunists, scoundrels, outlaws, rustlers, claim jumpers, purveyors of desultory pleasures and other unsavory characters who followed the frontier developments, and you have a rather unstable mix that was subject to explosive events that could detonate at the drop of a hat.
WS Ranch Cemetery near Alma, New Mexico.
Boot Hill cemeteries are a legendary staple in the traditional lore of the American West. Most commonly they refer to those particular havens of everlasting rest where persons—typically Alpha males—such as outlaws, gunfighters, drunken cowboys, gold-crazed miners, gamblers, etc., who died with their boots on after being shot, hung, stabbed, choked, or otherwise terminated, are interred. The term, however, can also refer to those who died in the pursuit of more honorable activities such soldiers, ranchers, farmers, or travelers who were killed or murdered simply because they happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. The small WS Ranch Cemetery located near Alma falls mostly, and possibly totally (as there being two sides to every story), in the latter category. All were men, all died violently, all were shot, and all died with their boots on . . .
Edward W. Lyon tombstone; killed By Apaches on May 30, 1885
In the same context that the San Francisco River Country can be considered a microcosm of what was taking place throughout the American West in the late 1800s, the WS Cemetery abides as a virtual time capsule chronicling the events and culture of the surrounding area during this same time period. Situated on the north side of a small hill on Gila National Forest land just of US 180 near Alma, New Mexico, the WS Ranch Cemetery today contains four tombstones commemorating seven burials, resulting from four separate traumatic events that occurred during the time that Captain William French managed the ranch from the mid-1880s to late 1890s.
According to Captain French, the first body to be buried in the cemetery was that of Edward W. Lyon, a young man whom French had met two years earlier on board the Royal Mail Ship Arizona during his move to the United States, who worked on the SU Ranch 35 miles to the north. Lyons had come down to Alma to pick up the ranch’s mail, and was killed by Apaches on his way back. His tombstone consists of a small, greatly-weathered and difficult-to-read marble stone topped with a cross. The stone is inscribed: EDWARD W. LYON, CLONHOLME? DERBYSHIRE ENGLAND, KILLED BY APACHES MAY 30 1885, AGED 25 YEARS
In his book, Captain French reports, “The poor fellow had evidently been reading his mail and was utterly oblivious to such a thing as an Indian when shot, for an open letter of his was picked up on the trail, evidently where he had fallen off his horse and a short distance from where his body was found. He had evidently crawled into shelter to die and the Indians took no further notice of him.”
Foreground: Common grave of U.S. Calvary soldiers killed in Chief Ulzana’s ambush on December 19, 1885
The next burials took place on December 21, 1885, following the ambush of Troop C of the 8th US Calvary at Soldier Hill, seven miles south of Pleasanton, by the Apache Chief Ulzana and nine warriors on December 19, 1885. Four or five troops (accounts vary) and a surgeon by the name of Dr. Maddox were killed. On same day as the ambush, Captain French received a message at the WS Ranch sent by Lt. Samuel W. Fountain, officer in charge of C Troop, stating the following: “Troop ambushed on Dry Creek Hill. Maddox and five others killed. Would you kindly send up a wagon to help to bring up bodies.” Captain French complied and reports in his book the following: “As I walked back to the camp with Fountain that night he talked over the final disposition of the bodies, and expressed a wish to bury them in our little cemetery. He said that both Maddox and he had always admired its situation, and he was sure the poor doctor would like to be buried there, even if it was only a temporary resting-place. So it was arranged.
French further describes how two graves were dug following the return to the WS Ranch: a large mass grave for the soldiers and a separate temporary grave for Dr. Maddox, who would be subsequently returned to his family. He reports in great detail on the funeral ceremony, which he estimates was attended by nearly 200 residents of the local area.
West side of common grave bearing names of BS Daniel Collins and PVT George Gibson.
East side of common grave bearing names of WAGR Frank E. Hutton and PVT Harry E. McMillan.
Today, a single white government tombstone, erected in 1950, is found at the mass grave of the enlisted men killed that day. Inscribed are the names of four soldiers, two on each side. On the west side of the stone is inscribed: DANIEL COLLINS, MASSACHUSETTS, BS 8 CALVARY; GEORGE GIBSON, PENNSYLVANIA, PVT 8 CALVARY, DECEMBER 19, 1885, KILLED BY APACHES. The east side of the stone is inscribed: FRANK E HUTTON, ILLINOIS, WAGR 8 CALVARY; HENRY E MCMILLAN MICHIGAN PVT 8 CAVALRY, DECEMBER 19, 1885.
Charlie Moore tombstone: Murdered in Cooney on October 30, 1888.
The next burial to take place was that of Charlie Moore, employee on the WS Ranch and friend of Captain French. According to Captain French, Old Charlie had a great interest in mining and invested heavily in numerous mining prospects in the area. In this regard he developed a friendship with a prospector he had grub-staked by the name of Mike Tracy. At that time, there was a saloon in Cooney operated by two men by the names of Penny and Shelton that Tracy was prone to frequent. As Captain French relates, it seems that this particular saloon had a bad reputation for getting patrons drunk, and then, having once relieved them of their money, beating them up and tossing them out into the street. After one unfortunate night of carousing, Tracy suffered this particular fate himself, and the next day went down to share his troubles with Charlie Moore. As Captain French confides “Charlie was not a man to be trifled with” and post haste went to Cooney with Mike to right the situation. After verbally confronting Penny and Shelton regarding the error of their ways, another afternoon and evening of drinking ensued with the ultimate result that Charlie was shot by Penny in the saloon. Upon hearing the news, brought by a messenger sent from Cooney, of Old Charlie’s demise, Captain French and others from the ranch rode up to Cooney. Appraised of the happenings by Uncle Billy Antrim (William H. Bonney’s, alias Billy the Kid, step-father), French succeeded in getting Penny arrested for murder and personally escorted him to Socorro where he spent a year in prison before being tried and acquitted by jury. Captain French remained forever convinced that Charlie had been murdered by Penny, as is clearly evidenced on the tombstone he bought and had inscribed and erected in the WS Ranch cemetery: CHARLEY MOORE, AGED ABOUT 60 YEARS, MURDERED AT LOVNEY [inscription error, should have been COONEY], OCTOBER 30, 1888.
The last burial in the WS Cemetery was that of Luke Flanagan, long-time Foreman of the WS Ranch and personal friend of Captain French. Flanagan had followed French to the United States from Ireland, where French relates his family had been tenants on French’s land for centuries.
Luke Flanagan tombstone: Murdered in Mogollon on November 9, 1889.
The year of Flanagan’s death was 1899, and during these final years of the 19th century the winds of change were beginning to howl in Southwest New Mexico. With the surrender of Geronimo in 1866, the fear of Apaches raids ended, encouraging an ever-increasing influx of homesteaders, miners, and entrepreneurs into the San Francisco Country. The mines in the Mogollon District and neighboring Grant County were booming, with new discoveries being made every day. The standard gauge Santa Fe Railroad had reached Silver City in 1886, and on August 24 1889, the Silver City, Piños Altos and Mogollon Railroad Company was incorporated to build a railway north to Mogollon. At the same time, big changes were taking place in the vast surrounding lands of Public Domain.
In response to increased population growth, and the accompanying increased use, overuse, and in some areas abuse that was occurring within Public Domain Lands in the West, the Land Revision Act of 1891 gave the president authority to set aside and reserve parts of Public Domain land, wholly or partly covered with timber, regardless of whether it had commercial value or not. The first of these reserves was the Yellowstone Park Timberland Reserve established on March 30, 1891. During the next decade, millions of additional acres were set aside throughout the West during the Cleveland and McKinley administrations, including The Gila River Forest Reserve established by proclamation of President McKinley on March 2, 1899. Eventually, these early Forest Reserves would become part of the U.S. National Forest System.
With the establishment of these forest reserves and the probable inevitability of additional rules and regulations, the days of unlimited, unchallenged, and unfettered use of Public Domain lands were coming to an end, and Captain French was surely aware of it. Such legislation did not bode well for the future for the large operations such as the WS Ranch that, up until this time, had considered these Public Domain lands as their own private domain. In addition to the problems posed by the Forest Reserves, private land acquisition was increasing within the San Francisco River Country, greatly accelerated by Congress’ expansion of the Homestead Act of 1862 by the Desert Land Entry Act of 1877, which provided purchase of a section (640 acres) of Public Domain Land for $1.25/acre if the buyer irrigated within three years; and the Timber and Stone Act of 1878, authorizing settlers and miners to buy up to 160 acres of land with potential timber and mineral resources at $2.50 per acre. Natural water sources long used by the large cattle operations were being bought up and fenced off. Compounding these threats to large scale ranching, in 1889, the New Mexico Territorial Assembly passed an act to prevent the overstocking of ranges by limiting the use of Public Lands to the extent that livestock would be supported on by water to which the owner of the livestock had title.
All of these factors undoubtedly weighed heavily in the decision by Captain French and his partner Wilson in 1899, to purchase private land in northern New Mexico, near Cimarron in Colfax County, where it would be put into cultivation to raise alfalfa for the cattle. To accomplish this, French decided that his right-hand man, Luke Flanagan, would have to move there from the WS Ranch. On November 9, 1899, Captain French left for Cimarron by train from Silver City, leaving Flanagan behind to bring up French’s buggy and team.
On the same afternoon of Captain French’s departure, Luke Flanagan went up to Mogollon to say goodby and have a few drinks with some friends and pay off some bills. On the following day, a telegram from Silver City caught up with French just as he arrived in Springer, New Mexico. The telegram contained the news that Flanagan had been murdered and requested that he return. Devastated, Captain French immediately returned to Mogollon, where he found out that Flanagan had been shot in James Johnson’s saloon at the hotel by a man by the name of Saunders or Sanders (accounts vary) after a previous encounter that evening in Landerburgh’s Saloon. Saunders, a local man, had recently been appointed town marshall by the authorities in Soccoro, the County seat, to enforce a new town ordinance prohibiting the wearing of firearms within town limits. This new ordinance had resulted from complaints by the new owners of the Last Chance Mine who were, as Captain French puts it, “shocked at the Western habit of going about armed and the reckless manner in which they loosed off their guns on slight provocation”.
Accounts vary as to the exact sequence of events leading up to the shooting and how and why Saunders shot Flanagan, but apparently it had something to do with the gun that Flanagan insisted on wearing despite the ordinance. Evidence at the scene and witnesses accounts suggested that death came instantaneously to the unsuspecting Flanagan, as Saunders had shot him in the back of the head. Saunders had been arrested on the spot, and over the ensuing weeks, Captain French pressed charges for murder, engaged special counsel to assist the prosecuting attorney, and took care of bringing the witnesses to court in Socorro. But it was all in vain, for despite, in French’s words “the judge’s summing up practically told the jury that if they believed the evidence then they had no choice except to convict him”, the jury’s deliberation was short, returning a verdict of not guilty.
Much to the dismay of his family in Ireland, and despite a great effort, Captain French was unable to obtain consecration of Luke Flanagan’s gravesite. Having made an application to the padre in Silver City, French received the reply that it was outside his parish and jurisdiction, and that he would have to use a padre on the Rio Grande over 200 miles away. It seems that this padre would only visit the Alma area every four years, and by the time he did pass through again, Captain French had long since left the San Francisco River Country, having moved his ranching operation to the Cimarron area in 1900, and was by then living in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
As in the case of Old Charlie Moore, Captain French was convinced that Luke Flanagan had been murdered in Mogollon, as is indicated on the tombstone that be bought and erected: LAKE FLANAGAN [inscription error, should be LUKE], AGED 44 YEARS, MURDERED AT MOGGOLLON [inscription error, should be Mogollon], NOV. 9, 1899.
EXPLORING THE HIDDEN BACKCOUNTRY LANDSCAPE WEST AND NORTH OF THE SAN FRANCISCO RIVER
Traveling north or south on US 180 between Alma and the Gila/Cliff area one’s eyes are constantly drawn to the east to the magnificent towering front range of the Mogollon Mountains. Rarely is one’s gaze drawn to the west except for the occasional fleeting views of the San Francisco River where it closely parallels the highway, beyond which there is relatively little to catch the eye other than a mostly continuous and rather monotonous front of low, partially-forested mountains. But just as books shouldn’t be judged by their cover, the same holds true for the vast, fascinating landscape that lies waiting on the west and north sides of the San Francisco River, totally hidden from view by the low mountain front seen from the highway.
With the exception of a few small private inholdings near the San Francisco River and US 180, almost all of this hidden backcountry landscape is today part of the Gila National Forest. This is the Public Domain and Open Range land on which the cattle from Captain French’s WS Ranch and other nearby ranches grazed. Today, this vast area remains essentially unchanged since the pioneer days of the WS Ranch. Cattle still graze here, although the once Open Range has long since been divided up into large grazing allotments, bounded by rusting old barbed wire fences, which are regulated and administered by the Gila National Forest.
Breathtaking view west towards Arizona from the road through the San Francisco River Backcountry
Roads are few and far between over this area, and those that are there are mostly rough gravel roads that generally require high clearance vehicles and are often rendered impassable during wet seasons. Most of these roads through this rugged landscape of forested mountains and intervening elevated rolling grassy mesas follow old cow, horse, and wagon trail routes established and used by the pioneer ranchers and loggers. With the establishment of the Gila National Forest some of these old cattle trails were eventually upgraded to official National Forest road status and improved to permit modern vehicular travel. In the last few years, some of these National Forest roads as designated and numbered on older maps of the Gila National Forest have been further upgraded, renumbered, and signposted as County Roads, which are now maintained by Catron County.
Access across the San Francisco River to this rarely visited portion of the Gila National Forest is limited. Only one bridge provides year-around access, and the few roads that ford the river require high clearance, almost always require four-wheel drive, and are only passable part of the year.
Looking northwest from road across the varied terrain of the San Francisco River Backcountry towards Blue Range Wilderness. All of the land in this photo was grazed by WS Ranch cattle in the 1880s and 1890s.
Close to the San Francisco River these County access roads are generally in fairly good condition. However, as one proceeds farther into this increasingly rugged and rarely visited terrain, the roads gradually become narrower and rougher, until the bone jarring and head snapping stage is reached were one begins to think maybe it’s a good time to turn around before the vehicle suffers something more than a cosmetic malfunction and help is a mere 20-mile-hike away. Part of the poor condition of these roads can be attributed to lack of use and less-than-frequent maintenance. However most of the roughness, or torture, as the case may be, is primarily due to the nature and composition of rocky terrain over which these roads pass. For this is volcanic rock country, consisting of a vast complex of mostly basaltic andesite and andesite lava flows which spread out from broad nearby shield volcanoes during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Epochs, between 24 and 29 million years ago, plus some occasional younger basalt flows that were extruded as the last gasp of volcanism in this part of New Mexico at the end of the Late Miocene about 5.5 million years ago.
GEOLOGY OF THE SAN FRANCISCO RIVER BACKCOUNTRY
The geology and geologic history of the mountains and uplifted mesas of the San Francisco River Backcountry differs significantly from that of the uplifted Mogollon Mountains and Gila Wilderness east of the San Francisco River. Separating these two uplifted areas is an essentially north-south trending valley averaging about six miles wide in an east-west direction. Between Alma on the north and Pleasanton on the south, the San Francisco River flows south along the western boundary of this valley.
In geological terms, this valley is what is known as a graben, which is a block of the Earth’s crust bounded on each side by high angle normal dip-slip faults that has subsided or moved downward vertically relative to the adjacent uplifted blocks of the Earth’s crust, which are called horsts. This particular graben is known in the geological literature as the Mangas Trench2, and is a major geologic feature that stretches southeast from Alma, through Glenwood, Pleasanton, Cliff, and Gila towards Silver City, forming a broad valley between the Burro Mountains on the south and the Mogollon and Piños Altos Mountains on the north. When driving north along US Highway 180 from Cliff and Gila towards Glenwood and Alma, one is driving up the middle of the Mangas Trench.
Looking east and downstream from spectacular Vigil Canyon across the Mangas Trench towards the Mogollon Mountains, about one mile upstream from the canyon’s confluence with the San Francisco River. Here the canyon has cut deeply into lava flows of basalt, 5.5 million years old, and is lined with old-growth sycamore, gray oak, and juniper.
The Mangas Trench graben can be considered an elongated, subsiding, sedimentary basin which, over millions of years, has been filled with sediments that have been eroded and carried by streams flowing out of the uplifted mountains on either side of the trench. Over millions of years, these sandy and gravelly sediments can gradually solidify and become cemented into sedimentary rocks which can be mapped and named as distinct formations, such as the Gila Conglomerate which is found throughout the Mangas Trench.
The Mangas Trench is one of several similar basins in the area which began to form about 19 million years ago, during which time the Earth’s crust began to be stretched in an east-west movement, known as the Basin and Range Province extension, producing a landscape of alternating subsiding basins (grabens) and uplifted mountain blocks (horsts).
The vast uplifted area comprising the Mogollon Mountains and the surrounding Gila Wilderness east of the Mangas Trench and the uplifted mountains of the San Francisco Backcountry west of the Mangas Trench are both volcanic in origin; however, they differ markedly in composition, rock type, age, and manner of formation.
This boulder of basaltic andesite flow rock was broken during construction of a gravel road through the San Francisco Backcountry. Note the tan-colored, highly-oxidized, and chemically-altered outer layer of the boulder and the dark gray, fresh rock on the inside. The holes in the boulder are gas bubbles from the time of formation. This boulder is typical of the volcanic material found at or just beneath the surface of the ground over much of the San Francisco River Backcountry. Over millions of years this rock has gradually weathered and altered to form a thin layer of rich clayey soil that supports a dense cover of grassland for the grazing of cattle.
As described in the March 23, 2012 blog on the Supervolcanoes of the Gila Wilderness, the volcanic rocks found in the Mogollon Mountains and the Gila Wilderness were formed primarily by the eruptions of several large super-volcanoes which occurred in two time periods, the first around 34 ma (million years ago) and a second one around 29-28 ma. These eruptions were very explosive due to the high silica (SiO2 content 63-70%) of the magma which forms a highly viscous melt that does not flow easily. Owing to their highly silicic composition, the greatest volume of the volcanic rocks in the Mogollon Mountains and Gila Wilderness would be classified as rhyolite in composition with most of the material being violently ejected from the exploding caldera as pyroclastic ash that formed welded tuffs, rather than flowing out on the surface.
In contrast, the volcanic rocks of the San Francisco Backcountry are somewhat younger, mostly in age from 24 -29 ma with some very late extrusions of basalt which have been dated to 5.5 ma. These rocks are also quite different compositionally, since the magma that formed the volcanic rocks west of the Mangas Trench was much lower in SiO2 content (45-63%), resulting in a less viscous, more fluid melt that flowed easily from the various local volcanic vents, or that rose up along major faults to form sheet-like layers of volcanic rock ranging in classification from mostly andesite and basaltic andesite to occasional basalt.
The volcanic pyroclastic rhyolitic rocks of the Mogollon Mountains and the Gila Wilderness, while rich in the hard, chemically stable mineral quartz, are often poorly fused or cemented together, and somewhat porous. As a result they are structurally weaker, more susceptible to erosion, and are more easily worked by road machinery. In contrast, the andesite, basaltic andesite, and basalt volcanic rocks of the San Francisco River Backcountry are primarily composed of softer and chemically unstable minerals such as plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole silicate minerals. When freshly exposed these rocks are typically massive, dense, and hard, making the construction of roads a difficult undertaking. If, however, these silica deficient volcanic rocks, are exposed to the atmosphere and subjected to chemical and physical weathering over thousands of years, these minerals will break down through chemical and physical alteration to form a rich, clayey soil capable of supporting a dense cover of vegetation. This, then, is the origin and nature of the soils that cover much of the San Francisco Backcountry, where forested, rugged, low mountain highlands intersperse with broad expanses of nearly flat mesas covered by a lush growth of grasslands, the same land so greatly prized and grazed by the WS Ranch 130 years ago.
Hiking through luxurious grasslands deep within the San Francisco River Backcountry. Note the rich clayey soil derived from altered volcanic bedrock lying a few inches beneath the surface of the ground. During wet periods, these roads can become a clayey quagmire, impassable for any vehicle.
EXPLORING THE SAN FRANCISCO RIVER BACKCOUNTRY
A perfect spot for lunch on the rim of magnificent Lower Big Pine Canyon, looking southwest to its confluence with the San Francisco River, where the canyon is over 1,000 feet deep.
To travel these old pioneer roads of the San Francisco Backcountry is to travel back in time to witness a landscape essentially the same as Captain French saw. It is raw nature at its finest where, depending on the time of the year, a wide diversity of animal and birds life can be observed in a variety of habitats ranging in elevation from 5,000 to 7,000 feet, from riparian forests of cottonwood and sycamore along the San Francisco River and its major tributary canyons, to ponderosa-lined mountain canyons, to vast expanses of upland mesa grasslands dotted with juniper and pinon.
For the photographer and the artist, it is a spectacular landscape offering endless vistas in all directions, as well as close-up nature studies. For the hiking enthusiast, the opportunities are endless, ranging from easy walks along rarely-travelled primitive roads across gently rolling grassy mesas to challenging hikes down into deep rocky canyons that flow into the San Francisco River. For the strong of heart, and even stronger of vehicle, the San Francisco River Backcountry is a great place to reconnect with nature and to explore and experience the New Mexico Territory of the late-1800s.
NOTE: The San Francisco River Backcountry is easily accessed from the Alma area by several gravel County roads that extend deeply, in some cases more than 20 miles, into this rugged portion of the Gila National Forest, some of which go all the way to the New Mexico-Arizona State line. While unlimited hiking is available over a variety of terrain, other than the County roads and the primitive forest tracks that lead off from them, there are no official, numbered Forest Trails. Consequently, visitors to the area are strongly advised to carry maps such as the new, 2013, Gila National Forest map or relevant USGS Quadrangle maps, plus, a compass or hand-held GPS if planning to hike off road.
Because of the rough condition of county roads and primitive forest tracks in this area, a high clearance vehicle is essential, and in some place 4-wheel drive is necessary. In wet weather, many of these roads become impassable for any vehicle due to the clayey gumbo soil that covers much of the area.
There are no sources of water available in this area, other than stock ponds and occasional springs and runoff in the deeper canyons.
As always, Casitas de Gila Guesthouses is happy to provide our guests with maps, detailed directions, current trail status and conditions, and updated weather information for any of the hikes or travels discussed in these blogs.
1. French, Captain William, 1928, Some Recollections of a Western Ranchman, 1883-1889, New Mexico, Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York.
2. Geology of the Late Cenozoic Alma Basin, New Mexico and Arizona (.pdf)